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Neurology is the diagnosis and management of diseases affecting the nervous system, typically the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and muscles. Neurological illness can take the form of strokes, migraines, epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, dementia and multiple sclerosis. Diseases affecting the spinal cord include spinal cord tumours and spinal cord compression. Peripheral nervous system problems include the neuropathies and myopathies as well as disorders of the neuromuscular junction (myasthenia).
Symptoms of neurological illness include poor memory, blackouts, dizziness, headache, speech problems, back pain, sciatica, limb weakness and numbness, tremor and bladder problems. Using a careful neurological history and detailed neurological examination along with appropriate specialised investigations, the neurology specialist attempts to identify the site of the neurological disturbance and its likely cause. If a patient requires surgery, the neurologist will refer the patient to a neurosurgeon. The neurologist will advise on the medical management of the neurological disease.